Operators in python are** special symbols that carry out arithmetic or logical computation**. The value that the operator operates on is called the operand. Operators are used to perform basic mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division & much more. Every programming language has it’s operators to perform different task.

**Python divides the operators in the following groups:**

- Arithmetic operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison operators
- Logical operators
- Identity operators
- Membership operators
- Bitwise operators

#### Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic Operators are used for mathematical operations

Operator | Meaning | Example |

+ | Add two operands or unary plus | x + y +2 |

– | Subtract right operand from the left or unary minus | x – y -2 |

* | Multiply two operands | x * y |

/ | Divide left operand by the right one (always results into float) | x / y |

% | Modulus – remainder of the division of left operand by the right | x % y (remainder of x/y) |

// | Floor division – division that results into whole number adjusted to the left in the number line | x // y |

** | Exponent – left operand raised to the power of right | x**y (x to the power y) |

**For example: –**

```
x = 5
y = 4
print ('x + y =', x + y)
print ('x - y =', x - y)
print ('x * y =', x * y)
print ('x / y =', x/y)
print ('x // y =', x//y)
print ('x ** y =', x**y)
```

Output

```
'x + y =', 9
'x - y =', 1
'x * y =', 20
'x / y =', 1
'x // y =', 1
'x ** y =', 625
```

#### Comparison Operators

Comparison Operators are used to compare or decide the relation among them.

Operator | Meaning | Example |

> | Greater that – True if left operand is greater than the right | x > y |

< | Less that – True if left operand is less than the right | x < y |

== | Equal to – True if both operands are equal | x == y |

!= | Not equal to – True if operands are not equal | x != y |

>= | Greater than or equal to – True if left operand is greater than or equal to the right | x >= y |

<= | Less than or equal to – True if left operand is less than or equal to the right | x <= y |

**For example: –**

```
x = 101
y = 121
print ('x > y is', x>y)
print ('x < y is', x<y)
print ('x == y is', x==y)
print ('x != y is', x!=y)
print ('x >= y is', x>=y)
print ('x <= y is', x<=y)
```

**Output**

```
'x > y is', False
'x < y is', True
'x == y is', False
'x != y is', True
'x >= y is', False
'x <= y is', True
```

#### Logical Operators

Logical operators are used on conditional statements. Logical operators are used to check whether an expression is True or False.

Operator | Meaning | Example |

and | True if both the operands are true | x and y |

or | True if either of the operands is true | x or y |

not | True if operand is false (complements the operand) | not x |

**For example**

```
x = True
y = False
print ('x and y is', x and y)
print ('x or y is', x or y)
print ('not x is', not x)
```

**Output**

```
'x and y is', False
'x or y is', True
'not x is', False
```

#### Bitwise operators

Bitwise operators to perform Boolean logic on individual bits. Bitwise AND operator; Bitwise OR operator; Bitwise not operator; Bitwise XOR operator.

Operator | Meaning | Example |

& | Bitwise AND | x& y |

| | Bitwise OR | x | y |

~ | Bitwise NOT | ~x |

^ | Bitwise XOR | x ^ y |

>> | Bitwise right shift | x>>2 |

<< | Bitwise left shift | x<<2 |

**For example:**

```
a = 6
b = 3
print ('a=',a,':', bin(a),'b=',b,':', bin(b))
c = 0
c = a & b;
print ("result of AND is ", c,':', bin(c))
c = a | b;
print ("result of OR is ", c,':', bin(c))
c = a ^ b;
print ("result of EXOR is ", c,':', bin(c))
c = ~a;
print ("result of COMPLEMENT is ", c,':', bin(c))
c = a << 2;
print ("result of LEFT SHIFT is ", c,':', bin(c))
c = a >> 2;
print ("result of RIGHT SHIFT is ", c,':', bin(c))
```

**Output**

```
'a=', 6, ':', '0b110', 'b=', 3, ':', '0b11'
'result of AND is ', 2, ':', '0b10'
'result of OR is ', 7, ':', '0b111'
'result of EXOR is ', 5, ':', '0b101'
'result of COMPLEMENT is ', -7, ':', '-0b111'
'result of LEFT SHIFT is ', 24, ':', '0b11000'
'result of RIGHT SHIFT is ', 1, ':', '0b1'
```

#### Python Membership Operators

Python offers two membership operators to check or validate the membership of a value.

Operator | Meaning |

in | Evaluates to true if it finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. |

not in | Evaluates to true if it does not finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. |

**For example:-**

```
a = 5
b = 10
list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]
if ( a in list ):
print ("Line 1 - a is available in the given list")
else:
print ("Line 1 - a is not available in the given list")
if (b not in list):
print ("Line 2 - b is not available in the given list")
else:
print ("Line 2 - b is available in the given list")
```

**Output**

```
Line 1 - a is available in the given list
Line 2 - b is not available in the given list
```

#### Python Identity Operators

Python Identity Operators Example ; is, Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise.

Operator | Meaning |

is | Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise. |

not is | Evaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise. |

**For example: –**

```
a = 10
b = 10
print ('Line 1','a=',a ,':',id(a), 'b=',b ,':',id(b))
if ( a is b ):
print ("Line 2 - a and b have same identity")
else:
print ("Line 2 - a and b do not have same identity")
```

**Output**

```
'Line 1', 'a=', 10, ':', 20839436, 'b=', 10, ':', 20839436
Line 2 - a and b have same identity
```

#### Operators Precedence

The operator precedence in Python is listed below. It is in descending order (upper group has higher precedence than the lower ones).

**Highest precedence to lowest precedence table**

Operators | Description |

( ) | Parentheses (grouping) |

** | Exponentiation (raise to the power) |

~+ – | Complement, unary plus and minus (method names for the last two are +@ and -@) |

*/ % // | Multiply, divide, modulo and floor division |

+ – | Addition and subtraction |

>> << | Right and left bitwise shift |

& | Bitwise ‘AND’ |

^| | Bitwise exclusive `OR’ and regular `OR’ |

<= < > >= | Comparison operators |

< > == != | Equality operators |

= %= /= //= -= += *= **= | Assignment operators |

is, is not | Identity operators |

in, not in | Membership operators |

not or and | Logical operators |

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