HTML Interview Questions and Answers

html interview Q&A

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language to structure web pages and its content. It works as a framework and consists of a series of elements which tells the browser how to display the content. Before stepping into the corporate world you must have an edge over other candidates and for this you must know some important HTML interview questions and answers. Let’s have a look on its initial releasing years:

Html released year

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Q1. How is HTML different from CSS and JavaScript? 

Answer :

  • HTML is a structural language that builds the structure of a website as the skeletal system forms the structure of the human body. Heading, paragraphs, images, text all are the part of HTML that creates the basic structure of a website. 
  •  CSS and JavaScript both are used on Web pages with HTML but for different roles. CSS is used to design the webpage for better layouts for the user, so that the user can feel comfortable with the Web page. JavaScript is used to create interaction between web pages and the user. 

Q2. What are tags? 

Answer:

Tags are the primary component of the HTML that defines how the content will be structured/ formatted. Content is placed in between HTML tags in order to properly format it. It makes use of the less than symbol (<) and the greater than symbol (>). A slash symbol is also used as a closing tag. For example:

                  <strong>sample</strong>

This is one of the frequently asked question in HTML interview questions and answers.

Q3. What are the void elements (Singular tag)? 

Answer:

A void element is an element whose content model never allows it to have contents under any circumstances. Void elements can have attributes.HTML elements which do not have closing tags or do not need to be closed are Void elements. For example <br/>, <img/>, <hr/>, etc. 

Q4. What is the advantage of collapsing white space?

Answer:

White spaces are a blank sequence of space characters, which is treated as a single space character in HTML. Because the browser collapses multiple spaces into a single space, you can indent lines of text without worrying about multiple spaces. This enables you to organize the HTML code into a much more readable format.

Q4. Describe HTML layout structure. 

Answer:

An HTML layout is a blueprint used to arrange web pages in a well-defined manner. It is easy to navigate, simple to understand and uses HTML tags to customize web design elements.

Every web page has different components to display the intended content and a specific UI. But still, there are few things which are templated and are globally accepted way to structure the web page, such as:

  • <header>: Stores the starting information about the web page.
  • <footer>: Represents the last section of the page.
  • <nav>: The navigation menu of the HTML page.
  • <article>: It is a set of information.
  • <section>: It is used inside the article block to define the basic structure of a page.
  • <aside>: Sidebar content of the page.

Q5.What is doctype and how many doctypes are available in html? 

Answer:

The DOCTYPE declaration is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in. This ensures that the web page is parsed the same way by different web browsers. 

In HTML 4.01, the DOCTYPE declaration refers to a document type definition (DTD). It consists of three types of doctypes that can be used: strict,transitional and frames.

In HTML 5 there is only one type of Doctype available.

In HTML interview question and answers Doctype is always asked

Q6. What is the significance of <head> and <body> tag in html? 

Answer:

The HTML <head> and <body> tags are the two most frequently used tags in HTML.

The <head> element is a container for all the head elements.

 The <head> element must include a title for the document, and can include scripts, styles, meta information, and more.

The following elements can go inside the <head> element:

  •     <title>
  •     <style>
  •     <base>
  •     <link>
  •     <meta>
  •     <script>
  •     <noscript>

The <body> tag defines the document’s body. The <body> element contains all the contents of an HTML document, such as headings, paragraphs, images, hyperlinks, tables, lists, etc. It is used to define the main content present inside an HTML page. It is always enclosed within <html>tag. The <body> tag is the last child of <html> tag. A body tag contains a starting as well as an ending tag.

HTML interview questions and answers

Q7. What is Semantic HTML? 

Answer:

Semantic HTML is one style of coding, where the tags convey the meaning of the text. HTML uses semantics to reinforce the semantics or purpose of the content.

For Example:

<b> </b> and <i> </i> tags which are used to bold and italic statements in HTML are replaced with <strong></strong> and <em></em> tags in semantic HTML. 

This is because they represent formatting and provide no meaning or structure.

Q8. What are Attributes in HTML?

Answer:

An additional attribute is given to each tag to alter the behavior of the tag. Attributes are defined directly after the tag name, inside the angular brackets. They appear in opening tags and can never appear in closing tags.

For example:

You can define an attribute for the <input> tag, such as a text field, checkbox, radio button, or many more ways. 

Q9. What is Anchor tag and how can you open an URL into a new tab when clicked?

Answer:

Anchor tag in HTML is used to link between two sections or two different web pages or website templates.

To open an URL into a new tab in the browser upon a click, we need to add a target attribute equal to _blank.

<a href=โ€#โ€ target=โ€_blankโ€></a>

Q10. How can we comment in HTML?

Ans:

Comments are used by developers to keep a track of the code functionality and also help the other developers in understanding the code functionalities easily.

The commented outlines will not be shown in the browser. To comment a line, the line should start by this <!โ€“– and end by this -โ€“>. Comments can be of one line or of multiple lines.

For Example:

<!– This is a one line comment ?

!– This is multiple line of two or more line โ†’

Q11. Explain list elements in HTML.

Ans:

  • Ordered List (<ol>) โ€“ An Ordered List or ol tag is the list that lists the items in an ordered way, i.e. numbered or alphabetically.
  • Unordered List (<ul>) โ€“ An Unordered List or ul tag is the list which will list the items in an unordered way, i.e. in bulleted format or in any other format.
  • Definition List (<dl>) โ€“ A Definition List or dl tag arranges the items in the way in which they are arranged in a dictionary.

Q12. What are entities in HTML? 

Ans:

An HTML entity is a piece of text (“string”) that begins with an ampersand ( & ) and ends with a semicolon ( ; ) . Entities are frequently used to display reserved characters (which would otherwise be interpreted as HTML code), and invisible characters (like non-breaking spaces). 

Q13. What is the latest version of HTML ?

Answer:

HTML5 is the latest specification of the HTML language, and represented a major break with previous markup practices. The purpose of the profound changes to the language was to standardize the many new ways in which developers were using it, as well as to encourage a single set of best practices with regards to web development.

Most of the individual changes are a result of larger objectives in the design of the language. These objectives primarily include:

  • Encouraging semantic (meaningful) markup
  • Separating design from content
  • Promoting accessibility and design responsiveness
  • Reducing the overlap between HTML, CSS, and JavaScript
  • Supporting rich media experiences while eliminating the need for plugins such as Flash or Java. 

Q14. New added tags in HTML5. 

Ans:

HTML5 is a new version of HTML. HTML5 introduced many new tags which belong to many aspects such as graphics, media, and forms. Here are some newly added tags of html as follow:

  • <article> tag: The <article> tag is one of the new sectioning element in HTML5. The HTML <article> tag is used to represent an article. More specifically, the content within the <article> tag is independent of the other content of the site (even though it can be related).
  • <section> tag: The <section> tag defines the section of documents such as chapters, headers, footers, or any other sections. The section tag divides the content into sections and subsections. The section tag is used when requirements of two headers or footers or any other section of documents are needed. The <section> tag grouped the generic block of related contents. The main advantage of the section tag is, it is a semantic element, which describes its meaning to both browser and developer.
  • <header> tag: The <header> tag contains information related to the title and heading of the related content. The <header> element is intended to usually contain the sectionโ€™s heading (an h1-h6 element or an <hgroup> element), but this is not required. The <header> element can also be used to wrap a sectionโ€™s table of contents, a search form, or any relevant logos. The <header> tag is a new tag in HTML5 and it requires a starting tag as well as an end tag. There can be several <header> elements in one document. A <header> tag cannot be placed within a <footer>, <address> or another <header> element
  • <hgroup> tag: The <hgroup> tag in HTML stands for heading group and is used to group the heading elements. The <hgroup> tag in HTML is used to wrap one or more heading elements from <h1> to <h6>, such as the headings and sub-headings. The <hgroup> tag requires the starting tag as well as ending tag.
  • <keygen> tag: The <keygen> tag in HTML is used to specify a key-pair generator field in a form. The purpose of the<keygen> element is to provide a secure way to authenticate users. When a form is submitted then two keys are generated, private key and public key. The private key is stored locally, and the public key is sent to the server. The public key is used to generate a client certificate to authenticate a user for the future.
  • <nav> tag: The <nav> tag is used for declaring the navigational section in HTML documents. Websites typically have sections dedicated to navigational links, which enables users to navigate the site. These links can be placed inside a nav tag. In other words, the nav element represents a section of the page whose purpose is to provide navigational links, either in the current document or to another document. The links in the nav element may point to other web pages or to different sections of the same webpage. It is a semantic element. Common examples of the nav elements are menus, tables, contents, and indexes
  • <embed> tag:  The <embed> tag in HTML is used for embedding external applications which are generally multimedia content like audio or video into an HTML document. It is used as a container for embedding plug-ins such as flash animations. This tag is a new tag in HTML 5, and it requires only the starting tag.
  • <details> tag: The <details> tag is used for the content/information which is initially hidden but could be displayed if the user wishes to see it. This tag is used to create an interactive widget that the user can open or close. The content of the details tag is visible when opening the set attributes.
  • <datalist> tag: The <datalist> tag is used to provide autocomplete features in the HTML files. It can be used with an input tag so that users can easily fill the data in the forms using select the data.
  • <audio> tag: The <audio> tag is used to insert an audio into an HTML webpage. 

Q15. What are some of the advantages of HTML5 over its previous versions?

Answer:

Some advantages of html5 are:

  • It has Multimedia Support.
  • It has the capabilities to store offline data using SQL databases and application cache.
  • Javascript can be run in the background.
  • HTML5 also allows users to draw various shapes like rectangles, circles, triangles, etc.
  • Included new Semantic tags and form control tags.

Q16. Differentiate between inline element and block element. 

Inline elementBlock element

Inline elements just take up the space that is absolutely necessary for the content and does not start from a new line.
Example:- <span>, <a>, <strong>, <img>, <button>, <em>, <select>, <abbr>, <label>, <sub>, <cite>, <abbr>, <script>, <label>, <i>, <input>, <output>, <q>, etc
Block elements start with a new line and consume the full width of the page available.
Example:- <div>, <p>, <header>, <footer>, <h1>…<h6>, <form>, <table>, <canvas>, <video>, <blockquote>, <pre>, <ul>, <ol>, <figcaption>, <figure>, <hr>, <article>, <section>, etc.

Q17. What is the use of comments in HTML? 

Answer:

Comments are used in an HTML document to make important notes and help developers mention any modification to be incorporated afterward. They are not displayed in the browser when the code is executed. A comment is always written in between the โ€˜โ€”โ€˜ symbol at the beginning and end of the angular brackets.

Q18. Differentiate between html and html5. 

Answer:

HTMLHTML5
HTML have many risks while updates and do not have any declare type of the page to set it as an HTML4.HTML5 does have risks like constant updates, it is generally easy to keep up with the updates because of the simpler syntax.
It was unable to support multimedia such as audio and video without Flash player support.It supports multimedia such as audio and video controls with the use of <audio> and <video> tags.
Vector graphics was used in HTML with the help of various technologies such as VML, Flash, Silverlight etc.Vector graphics now is an integral part of HTML 5 such as canvas and svg.
Older version of HTML are less responsive.HTML5 language is more responsive.

Q19. In how many ways can you display HTML elements?

Answer:

  • Inline: Using this we can display any block-level element as an inline element. The height and width attribute values of the element will not affect.
  • Block: using this, we can display any inline element as a block-level element. 
  • Inline-block: This property is similar to inline, except by using the display as inline-block, we can actually format the element using height and width values.
  • Flex: It displays the container and element as a flexible structure. It follows the flexbox property.
  • Inline-flex: It displays the flex container as an inline element while its content follows the flexbox properties.
  • Grid: It displays the HTML elements as a grid container.

None: Using this property we can hide the HTML element.

Q20. If any tag missed in HTML structure then will the code run or not ?

Answer:

HTML5 has the capability to correct the HTML structure code itself but the versions before HTML 5 did have this capability to correct misspelled or missed tag. That’s why HTML 5 is most likely by developers.

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